# Dictionary Definition

googolplex n : a cardinal number represented as 1
followed by a googol of zeros (ten raised to the power of a
googol)

# User Contributed Dictionary

## English

### Noun

- the number 10^, ten to the power of a googol

### Verb

- to increase by an extremely large number

### Related terms

# Extensive Definition

Googolplex is the number 10googol (that is 1 followed by a
googol zeros).

- 1 googolplex
- = 10googol
- = 10(10100)
- = 1010,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

In 1938, Edward
Kasner's nine-year-old nephew Milton Sirotta coined the term
googol; Milton then
proposed the further term googolplex to be "one, followed by
writing zeroes until you get tired". Kasner decided to adopt a more
formal definition "because different people get tired at different
times and it would never do to have [Primo]
Carnera [a champion boxer] be a better mathematician than
Dr.
Einstein, simply because he had more endurance".

## How big is a googolplex?

One googol is greater than the number of elementary particles in the observable universe, which has been variously estimated from 1079 up to 1081. A googol is also greater than the number of Planck times elapsed since the Big Bang which is estimated at around 8 × 1060. Therefore a list of the state of every particle at every measurable unit of time since the Big Bang would have nowhere near a googolplex entries (max. around 8 × 10141).Since a googolplex is one followed by a googol
zeroes, it would not be possible to write down or store a
googolplex in decimal
notation, even if all the matter in the known universe were
converted into paper and ink or disk drives. Indeed, if you had an
unlimited supply of ink and paper, you would need around 1020
universes to fully write it down.

Thinking of this another way, consider printing
the digits of a googolplex in unreadable, one-point
font. TeX
one-point font is .3514598 mm per digit, which means it
would take about 3.5 × 1096 meters to write in one-point font. The
known universe is estimated at 7.4 × 1026 meters in diameter, which means the
distance to write the digits would be about 4.7 × 1069 times the
diameter of the known universe. The time it would take to write
such a number also renders the task implausible: if a person can
write two digits per second, it would take around 1.1 × 1082 times
the age
of the universe to write down a googolplex.

Thus in the physical world it is difficult to
give examples of numbers that compare closely to a googolplex. In
analyzing quantum
states and black holes,
physicist Don Page writes that "determining experimentally whether
or not information is lost down black holes of solar mass ... would
require more than 101076.96 measurements to give a rough
determination of the final density matrix after a black hole
evaporates". In a separate article, Page shows that the number of
states in
a black hole with a mass roughly equivalent to the Andromeda
Galaxy is in the range of a googolplex.

In pure
mathematics, the magnitude
of a googolplex is not as large as some of the specially defined
extraordinarily large
numbers, such as those written with tetration, Knuth's
up-arrow notation, Steinhaus-Moser
notation, or
Conway chained arrow notation. Even more simply, one can name
numbers larger than a googolplex with fewer symbols, for example,

- 9^,

Some sequences grow very quickly;
for instance, the first two
Ackermann numbers are 1 and 22=4; but then the third is 333, a
power
tower of threes more than seven trillion high. Yet, much larger
still is Graham's
number, perhaps the largest natural
number mathematicians actually have a use for.

A googolplex is a gigantic number that can be
expressed compactly because of nested exponentiation. Other
procedures (like tetration) can express large numbers even more
compactly. The natural question is: what procedure uses the
smallest number of symbols to express the biggest number? A
Turing
machine formalizes the notion of a procedure or algorithm, and a busy beaver
is the Turing machine of size n that can write down the biggest
possible number http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BusyBeaver.html.
The bigger n is, the more complex the busy beaver, hence the bigger
the number it can write down. For n=1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 the
numbers expressible are not huge, but research as of 2006 shows that for
n=6 the busy beaver can write down a number at least as big as
1.29\times10^.
http://home.earthlink.net/~mrob/pub/math/ln-notes1.html#beaver-rec
It is an open question whether the seventh busy beaver can express
a googolplex

## In popular culture

Googolplex (an extremely large movie theater)
appears several episodes of The Simpsons
and in the video game
The Simpsons Hit & Run

The search engine Google (a deliberate
misspelling of googol)
refers to its headquarters as the Googleplex,
likely an abbreviation of "Google Complex".

The "Googleplex Star Thinker in the Seventh
Galaxy of Light and Ingenuity" appears (an earlier "playful"
misspelling) in the Douglas
Adams 1979
novel,
The Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy.

The band Clutch
released an album in 2002 called Live
at the Googolplex.

In episode IX of Carl Sagan's
Cosmos: A Personal Voyage television series, Sagan,
illustrating the advantages of scientific notation over decimal
notation, starts writing a googolplex on a roll of paper. He
unwinds the roll of paper throughout Cambridge University's campus,
before finally giving up.

In
Back to the Future Part III, Emmett
Brown, in lamenting the loss of the girl of his dreams, says,
"Clara was one in a million. One in a billion. One in a
googol-plex."

Googol and Googolplex are also several times
mentioned by the protagonist, the 9 year-old Oskar, of Jonathan
Safran Foer's novel "Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close".

In Phineas
& Ferb, the mall seen in several episodes is called the
Googolplex Mall.

In the Loonatics
Unleashed Season 1 Episode "The Comet Cometh"
Tech creates a device which amplifies
Ace's laster vision by "a full factor of google."
Rev begins to explain what it is only to be interrupted by
Danger Duck in boredom.

The word googolplex was referred from the song
"One Googolplex Dollar" by zulbrunei in his album
"Dandruff".

In the book Girl Who Owned a City, a googolplex
is known as a "fun number."

In the "Jack versus Mad Jack" episode of Samurai
Jack, a bounty hunter claims that Aku is offering two
Googolplex on his head.

## See also

## External links

- Who Can Name the Bigger Number? http://www.scottaaronson.com/writings/bignumbers.html
- Comparing googolplex to numbers similar in size: http://home.earthlink.net/~mrob/pub/math/numbers-15.html#l_p1_1000e100
- The Biggest Numbers in the Universe: http://www.strangehorizons.com/2001/20010402/biggest_numbers.shtml
- Known prime factors of googolplex + n (0 <= n <= 999): http://www.alpertron.com.ar/GOOGOL.HTM
- Another Googolplex page: http://www.procrastinators.org/googolplex.html
- A humorous C program to count to a googolplex: http://www.fpx.de/fp/Fun/Googolplex/
- The Challenge of Large Numbers http://www.fortunecity.com/emachines/e11/86/largeno.html
- Googolplex is "inconceivable" but still "describable": http://jimvb.home.mindspring.com/hamlet.htm

## References

googolplex in Catalan: Googolplex

googolplex in Czech: Googolplex

googolplex in Danish: Googolplex

googolplex in Spanish: Googolplex

googolplex in Esperanto: Gugloplekso

googolplex in Basque: Googolplex

googolplex in French: Gogolplex

googolplex in Korean: 구골플렉스

googolplex in Indonesian: Googolplex

googolplex in Icelandic: Googolplex

googolplex in Italian: Googolplex

googolplex in Latvian: Gugolplekss

googolplex in Hungarian: Googolplex

googolplex in Dutch: Googolplex

googolplex in Japanese: グーゴルプレックス

googolplex in Norwegian: Googolplex

googolplex in Norwegian Nynorsk:
Googolplex

googolplex in Polish: Googolplex

googolplex in Portuguese: Googolplex

googolplex in Russian: Гуголплекс

googolplex in Simple English: Googolplex

googolplex in Slovak: Googolplex

googolplex in Finnish: Googolplex

googolplex in Swedish: Googolplex

googolplex in Thai: กูกอลเพลกซ์

googolplex in Turkish: Googolplex

googolplex in Chinese: 古戈爾普勒克斯